Code snippets with line numbers

In prior versions of the docs, we provided “workarounds” to rendering issues arising from code snippets with line numbers. While these seemed to resolve visual layout issues, they did not resolve core issues with Jekyll generating invalid HTML. See the detailed explanation for more information.

The default settings for HTML compression are incompatible with the HTML produced by Jekyll for line numbers from highlighted code – both when using Kramdown code fences and when using Liquid highlight tags.

To avoid non-conforming HTML and unsatisfactory layout, HTML compression can be turned off by using the following configuration option:

    envs: all

When using Kramdown code fences, line numbers are turned on globally by the following configuration option:

      line_numbers: true

Line numbers can then be suppressed locally using Liquid tags (without the linenos option) instead of fences:

{% highlight some_language %}
Some code
{% endhighlight %}

Detailed Error Explanation

Consider this following code snippet, intended to highlight a simple Ruby program:

{% highlight ruby linenos %}
def foo
  puts 'foo'
{% endhighlight %}

If this is directly placed within a file processed by Jekyll (via Just the Docs, with HTML compression enabled), the following markup will be generated:

<figure class="highlight">><code class="language-ruby" data-lang="ruby"><div class="table-wrapper"><table class="rouge-table"><tbody><tr><td class="gutter gl"><pre class="lineno">1
</pre><td class="code"><pre><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">foo</span>
  <span class="nb">puts</span> <span class="s1">'foo'</span>
<span class="k">end</span>

This HTML is invalid; in particular, there are two issues:

  1. there are many missing closing tags, and a superfluous >, which produce visually garbled output
  2. a <table> is placed within a <code> element, which is syntactically invalid HTML (but is often allowed by browsers)

To emphasize this first difference, here is the same markup output, indented by tag:

<figure class="highlight">
  <code class="language-ruby" data-lang="ruby">
    <div class="table-wrapper">
      <table class="rouge-table">
            <td class="gutter gl">
              <pre class="lineno">
              <td class="code">
<span class="k">def</span>
<span class="nf">foo</span>
<span class="nb">puts</span>
<span class="s1">'foo'</span>
<span class="k">end</span>

In order, there are missing </td>, </td>, </tr>, </tbody>, </table>, </div>, and </code> tags. As a result, the following elements of the page - including the site footer - become visually garbled as browsers attempt to recover gracefully.

Prior workarounds we suggested (such as Dmitry Hrabrov’s in jekyll-compress-html#71) resolve the missing tag problem. However, they still place a <table> within a <code> element. The HTML spec normatively states that <code> elements should only contain “phrasing content”, which does not include <table> (spec ref). To avoid incorrectly rendered HTML, the previously-suggested workaround using the current version of _includes/fix_linenos.html should not be used!